National Association of Jewelers created a list of all modern birthstones back in 1912. Purpose of creating this list is mostly commercial in order to list available gemstones for every month. The list was updated in 1952 by adding Alexandrite, Citrine, and Tourmaline. The latest addition is from 2012 when spinel was added.
Since you are searching for modern birthstones you need to understand that there is no definitive source of birthstones for each zodiac sign. If you come across the situation that your month or zodiac sign has more than one birthstone, the reason for that are different sources of information across ancient civilizations. Considering that we have mystical birthstones, Hebrew, Ayurvedic, zodiac, ancient, Eastern birthstones, you see the reason for creating a uniform list of birthstones.
For this reason, in 1912 the American Association of Jewelers adopted an official list of birthstones. While “traditional list of birthstones” was based on gemstones found on Aarons breastplate, modern birthstone list is considered more as salesmanship product.
Over the past 100 years, the list of modern birthstones was updated multiple times by adding more stones for different months of the year. Back in 1952, Alexandrite was added as a June birthstone, tourmaline was added to October and citrine to November. Lapis lazuli that was associated with December was switched with Zircon. In 2016 Spinel was added to August. On the other hand, Britain's National Asociation of Goldsmiths has its own standardized list of birthstones. Following list is based on the latest US list established in 2019.
Garnet is traditional January birthstone coming in a huge range of different colors but is most popular as a red gemstone. It is associated with creative energy, grounding spiritual forces, love, intense feelings, and removing negative energy. Garnet is used for balancing energy, inspiring love, and sex drive. It is often used for bringing luck, success, love, and self-confidence.
Amethyst is traditional February birthstone associated with St Valentine. If you decide to wear this gemstone it will bring into your life love, passion, insight, perception, and self-knowledge. Amethyst comes in different shades of purple color. It is considered as supporting stone for overworked and stressed people, healing mental anxieties, anger, physical tension, and negative behaviors.
Aquamarine is blue Beryl gemstone that can be found in other colors like green, yellow, pink, and red. It is associated with purity, relaxation, courage, good luck, protection, happiness, youth, and communication. Aquamarine is Throat chakra stone that boosts intellect, learning, judgment, and responsibility. It is used for healing lungs, cough, fever, allergies, sore throat, and psoriasis.
Bloodstone is one of the most beautiful Jasper crystals that comes in deep green color and spots of red color. The energy of this stone is associated with life, birth, blood, passion, courage, protection, and courage. Bloodstone is used for healing of the spleen, kidneys, liver, blood purification and improving the immune system. Its power can be used for emotional support during a hard time.
Diamond is rare and beautiful gemstone, probably most prized crystal all over the world. It is one of the best energy amplifiers that is associated with Crown and Etheric Chakra. It is highly sought after crystal that comes in many colors, from colorless to black, white, yellow, pink, blue, green, red, and brown. Diamond is a symbol of manifestation, abundance, and wealth. This stone relieves anxiety, fears, exhaustion, bring clarity, improves brain functions, nerves, combats aging, and depression.
Emerald is a green gemstone that is considered as the crystal of love, vision, intuition, wisdom, truth, associated with Heart chakra and eyes. It is one of the best crystals for reviving the passion for a significant person or job. It attracts love, promotes self-esteem, confidence, creativity, focus, and mental activity. Emerald is a crystal that combats aging, revitalizes heart, lungs, and kidneys.
Pearl is formed in freshwater and saltwater mollusks considered as traditional February birthstone. This gemstone comes in many different colors and is associated with meditation, purity, innocence, honesty, affection, charm, and sympathy. It is believed that pearl increases focus and personal integrity. Its healing properties are associated with soft organs and digestive disorders.
Moonstone is a crystal that is connected with the energy of the Moon since ancient times. It is used as a gift for lovers, passion, wisdom, and prophecy. This stone comes in many colors like gray, white, blue, peach, yellow, and rainbow. In the past, it was called “Traveller Stone” used by people who travel especially during the night. It is great protection stone for drivers, the talisman of love, eroticism, and reunion. The energy of this beautiful crystal promotes fertility, cures insomnia and dispels bad dreams.
Alexandrite is an extremely rare crystal that is relatively new being found in 1830. This crystal is associated with happiness and joy, awareness, good luck, love, and hope. It is known for its ability to change color based on ambient light from purple-red to blue-green color. This stone is associated with romance, self-discipline, restoring physical energy, treating infections, spleen and pancreas. It is very useful for boosting self-esteem.
Ruby is one of the most amazing red gemstones associated with power, kings, nobility, and wealth. It is associated with passion, integrity, prosperity, high energy, courage, enthusiasm, and protection. Ruby is used for centuries for overcoming lethargy, exhaustion, as an energy amplifier, stimulation, improving relations, and concentration. It is used for healing the heart, soothing menstrual pain, sexual dysfunction, and impotence.
Peridot is used since ancient times for regulating life cycles, emotions, and intellect. It is olive-green to a deep and yellow-green color crystal. Positive vibrations of this crystal remove negative paters, remove blockages, heals addictions, alleviate impatience, guilt, anger, anxiety, and fears. This stone is often used for healing the physical and emotional body, boosting health, helps to function of bladder, liver, spleen. It is associated with Solar Plexus and Heart Chakra.
Spinel is a beautiful gemstone that comes in many different colors like purple, white, pink, grey, black, blue, green, yellow, and brown. It is associated with the energy of revitalization and renewal, that provide assistance during the time of a big challenge. This stone eliminates negative thoughts, worry, calms the nervous system, and brings confidence.
Sapphire is blue crystal considered as a symbol of royalty, wisdom, prophecy, protection, and good fortune. This majestic stone comes in black, green, violet, orange, pink, and yellow color. It is used as a calming crystal for focusing the mind, opening it to beauty, bringing joy, integrity, love, and fidelity. Sapphire is used for healing all the body, curing insomnia, headache, fever, dementia, and depression.
Opal is a versatile gemstone that is known for its “play of colors” and may be found as white, yellow, green, red, orange, black, blue, brown, transparent and colorless stone. This stone reflects the mood and emotions of the person wearing it. It is considered as a gemstone that promotes security, protection, eases depression, stress, and negative thinking. It is associated with love, passion, creativity, eroticism, and deep desires. Healing properties of Opal crystal is connected to the healing of skin, eyes, nails, hair, infections, blood, and kidneys.
Tourmaline colors range from black, brown, pink, violet and green to dual colors of pink-green. It is considered to be a shamanic stone that provides protection, good direction, purification, grounding effects, and healing. This stone soothes panic attacks, fears, paranoia, release tension, balances left and right side of the brain and promotes confidence, strength, and understanding.
Topaz is considered to be enhancement crystal of potency, associated with luxury, strength, generosity, love, fidelity, and friendship. It is used as a symbol of courage, wisdom, and luck for all personal endeavors. This crystal comes in many colors from clear, white, pink, blue, purple, and brown. It is associated with abundance, good fortune, love, and friendship. Healing properties of this crystal are connected to healing whole body, metabolism, eating disorders, weight loss, anorexia, and stabilizing emotions.
Citrine is yellow to a yellowish-brown gemstone that is associated with Sacral, Solar Plexus, and Crown chakra. It is considered to be a crystal of imagination, manifestation, protection, prosperity, and generosity. Citrine is one of the best stones for acquiring wealth, abundance, attracting money and prosperity. Healing properties of this stone are associated with boosting metabolism, endocrine system, eliminating infections, healing skin, and allergies.
Turquoise is one of the oldest stones used throughout history by warriors, kings, shamans, and healers as a stone of protection. It is believed that this stone influences persons physical condition, protects it from falling, from evil, and bring good fortune and happiness. Turquoise is used for healing depression, panic attacks, exhaustion, improves the immune system, migraines, headache, eye and neck problems. It is associated with Throat chakra.
Zircon is underappreciated gemstone often mistaken for cubic zirconia. In fact, zircon is for its beauty and luster similar to diamonds. It is used for liver stimulation, relieving the pain, hormone balancing, insomnia, liver, and vertigo. Zircon is one of the best-supporting stones for overcoming the loss of a family member, emotional pain, depression, grief, anxiety, and fear.
Tanzanite is gemstone found in green, purple, blue, red, and pink color that comes with a vitreous luster. It is great protection crystal associated with Throat and Crown chakra. It is used for soothing and calming emotions, communication problems, boosting the immune system, detoxification of the blood and improving vitality. The energy of this crystal is used for boosting happiness, fixing emotional issues, promoting compassion, and overcoming fears.